The level of concentration of hydrogen ions decides of pH in soil. To sources of soil acidification
we can include:
Acid soil appears in area of Włoszczowski district. As a result of this, it is harder for plants to uptake nutrients. Above this it attains to activation of toxic chemicals, which leads to higher uptake of heavy metals by plants. These phenomenons leads to lower harvests and worse quality of them. A way to make these quality better is to lime these soils. This process will make soils more alkaline.
2. Deployment of particles size in soil
Deployment of particles size also called granulation determines the percentage of fractions of soil against the weight of entire specimen of tested soil.
One of the testing ways is sieve analysis. It depends on using some sieves ( ca. 0,05mm to 80mm). Vibrations are causing the smaller particles to move and the bigger ones are stopped.
In testing areas: Ciemiętniki, Czarnca and in our school environs the light and medium soils are dominating. The content of loam is less than 30%. They are mainly podzols and peat soils.
In the areas of Wolica, near Chęciny and near Raj Cave occur heavy soils. They are mainly rendzinas, which came into being from limestones. They are fertile but hard to use.
3. Soil types
In Włosczowski district area we can distinguish three soil areas.
4.Chemical composition of soil is composed.
The basic components of soil are:
Almost every element occurs in vestigial amounts in soil.
5. Presence of nitrogen in soil
Nitrogen in soil environment appears in organic and mineral forms. To mineral forms of nitrogen we can include nitric form (NO3^-) and ammonium form (NH4^+), which makes only 1-2% of general nitrogen.
Agronomical category of soil
|Content of N(min)|
|very low||low||medium||high||very high|
|very light||up to 40||41-65||66-85||86-120||above 120|
|light||up to 50||51-80||81-105||106-130||above 130|
|medium and heavy||up to 60||61-90||91-115||116-140||above 140|
6. Phosphorus is component of many compounds and it has influence on plants metabolism.
This element very poorly moves in the soil.
Evaluation of phosphorus content in mineral soils (in mg/100g of soil)
|Evaluation of content||Converted into P₂O₅|
|very low||below 5,0|
|low||5,1 - 10,0|
|medium||10,1 - 15,0|
|high||15,1 - 20,0|
|very high||above 20,1|
Soils of świętokrzyskie voivodeship have very low and low level of nitrogen and phosphorus (ca. 45% of soils). Soils in włoszczowski district have low or very low content of phosphorus and nitrogen. They are ca. 57% of all soils.
7. Influence of salt
Soil salinity, after crossing certain set standard, can lead to stopping growth of vegetables and even damaging them.
8. Influence of liming on the soil reaction.
Liming is a very important process, which is adjusting soil reaction and prevents its acidification. It also causes enhancement of using mineral fertilizers. Calcium also reduces amount of harmful fungi.
9. Influence of acid soil
Soil acidification is at some point helpful for most part of trees. Mostly because of benefits for trees and mushrooms which lives in symbiosis.
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